Wczytywanie
actus humanus GDAŃSK // 11-15.12.2019
ARTISTS
PAUL McCREESH
PAUL
McCREESH
PAUL
McCREESH
The founder and artistic director of the Gabrieli Consort & Players ensemble and a leading champion of authentic performance, famous for his passion for, and commitment to, historically informed performance, he sets new standards for that kind of artistic production (‘BBC Music Magazine’). In the field of early music, he is considered one of the most eminent artists of his generation. Although he sometimes provokes controversies, McCreesh always inspires respect and appreciation for his work. Over his several decades of creative activity he has led performances of the most outstanding opera, choral, and symphonic works, while recordings of early music with his participation have inspired other enthusiasts of period performance. He has conducted orchestras and choirs from all over the world, including Gewandhaus Leipzig, Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra, Royal Northern Sinfonia, Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra, Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra, and Sydney Symphony Orchestra. In 2011, he launched his own record label called Winged Lion.
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 GABRIELI CONSORT & PLAYERS
GABRIELI CONSORT & PLAYERS
GABRIELI CONSORT & PLAYERS
Over the years, this English ensemble founded in 1982 has travelled the road that led them to be called one of the most distinguished groups in the field of period performance. Under the leadership of Paul McCreesh, they won the appreciation of critics and audiences thanks to their excellent performances of Renaissance and Baroque music. The group’s repertoire comprises the most outstanding vocal-instrumental works, as well as a cappella pieces. Ever since they recorded Handel’s works, the members of the ensemble have been considered masters in interpreting the famous composer’s oeuvre. Performances by the Gabrieli Consort & Players are characterised not only by perfect playing on period instruments, but also by a particular authenticity of execution, as their artistic director has declared. In the course of their fifteen-years’ collaboration with the Deutsche Grammophon label, the group has produced excellent records of both early, and more modern, music. The ensemble has also won a number of prestigious prizes and awards such as the ‘Gramophone Award’, ‘BBC Music Magazine Awards’, or ‘Diapason d’Or’, and a nomination for the ‘Grammy Award’.
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FABIO BIONDI
FABIO
BIONDI
FABIO
BIONDI
Violinist and conductor, founder of the Europa Galante ensemble. Born in Palermo, he was already performing Bach’s violin concertos at the Wiener Musikverein at the age of sixteen. He then started to cooperate as concertmaster with the most famous ensembles playing period instruments such as Cappella Real, Musica Antiqua Wien, Il Seminario Musicale, La Chapelle Royale, Les Musiciens du Louvre (since its beginning). In 1990, he founded his own orchestra, Europa Galante, with which he performs on the most prestigious of world stages. The albums that they recorded together won numerous awards and became reference recordings. Their extensive concert activity and huge phonographic success (almost one million discs sold) made them the best-known Italian performers of early music as well as the winners of the most awards.
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 EUROPA GALANTE
EUROPA GALANTE
EUROPA GALANTE
The ensemble was founded in 1990 by the violinist Fabio Biondi who wanted to create an Italian orchestra of period instruments performing works of the great baroque and classical repertoire. It is famous for its virtuosity and energetic, almost aggressive style of performance which, however, perfectly combines with Italian and, at the same time baroque, tunefulness. Its interpretations boast not only rhythmic vigour, but also plasticity and a particular sensitivity to the richness of timbres. Since its first recordings, which are still the highest reference point, the ensemble has remained the indisputable authority on performing Italian music of the 17th and 18th centuries. It appears in the most prestigious concert halls, not only playing well-known masterpieces, but also reviving forgotten works.
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GIOVANNI ANTONINI
GIOVANNI
ANTONINI
GIOVANNI
ANTONINI
An Italian conductor and virtuoso playing the recorder and Western concert flute, Antonini is a co-founder and artistic director of the renowned ensemble specialising in historically informed performance called Il Giardino Armonico. Over the years, he has gained a reputation as one of the most eminent champions of historically informed performance and has become an extremely sought-after guest conductor. He has already led the Kammerorchester Basel, Berliner Philharmonic, Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, and Orquesta Nacional de España among others; he has also conducted opera performances at the Milanese La Scala and during the Salzburg Festival. He has toured extensively in Europe, in various countries of both the Americas, as well as in Australia, Japan, and Malaysia. The greater part of his rich phonographic output consists of albums recorded with the ensemble Il Giardino Armonico and published by leading labels such as Decca, Naïve, Harmonia Mundi, Sony BMG, Alpha Classics, or Teldec. Those recordings brought him a series of awards and prizes, including the ‘Grammy Award’, the ‘Diapason d’Or’, or the ‘Gramophone Award’. Since 2013, Antonini has also been the artistic director of the Wratislavia Cantans.
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 IL GIARDINO ARMONICO
IL GIARDINO ARMONICO
IL GIARDINO ARMONICO
This Italian ensemble founded in Milan in 1985 is a leading representative of historically informed performance and one of the first groups playing on period instruments. Led by the exquisite conductor Giovanni Antonini, it regularly appears at the most prestigious festivals and concert halls. The ensemble is held in high regard for both its concert repertoire and opera productions. The group is particularly interested in performing 17th- and 18th-century music. They have also been recording extensively, and their phonographic output consists of scores of recordings of music by various composers including Monteverdi, Handel, Telemann, Vivaldi and Mozart. Their records were published by labels such as Decca, Naïve, Harmonia Mundi, Sony BMG, Alpha Classics, and Teldec among others. As part of the ‘Haydn2032’ project they are also promoting the music of this representative of the First Viennese School through recording his complete symphonies and giving concert series devoted to his oeuvre.
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RINALDO ALESSANDRINI
RINALDO
ALESSANDRINI
RINALDO
ALESSANDRINI
Founder and the leader of the Concerto Italiano ensemble, their harpsichordist, organist and pianist ready to play historical instruments. According to ‘The Times’, Alessandrini is the man who made Italian music sound Italian again, because by focusing mainly on the Italian Mannerist and Baroque repertoire, Alessandrini tries to fill his interpretations with the melodiousness and expressions characteristic of 17th- and 18th-century style. Apart from running Concerto Italiano, Rinaldo Alessandrini performs intensively as a soloist, appearing at festivals around the world, starting from Japan, through Europe and across the United States. He is often engaged as a visiting conductor, and also performs in numerous opera projects. His recordings received many awards and distinctions from international music critics, including ‘Grand Prix du Disque’ and ‘Deutschen Schallplattenkritik’ award.
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 CONCERTO ITALIANO
CONCERTO ITALIANO
CONCERTO ITALIANO
Starting with the madrigal repertoire, particularly Monteverdi, and moving to the 18th-century orchestral works and operas, Concerto Italiano revolutionised the criteria of early music performance. The ensemble makes regular appearances in major musical centres, boasting numerous tokens of recognition from the musical critics, including four ‘Gramophone Awards’ (1994, 1998, 2002 and 2004), two ‘Grand Prix du Disque’, three ‘Deutschen Schalplattenkritik’ awards and others. Recently Concerto Italiano has produced a trilogy of Monteverdi operas in La Scala, Milan as well as Monteverdi’s ‘Vespers’ as well as numerous projects to celebrate the 450th anniversary of the Master of Cremona in 2017. The ensemble's recent projects include European tour with A. Scarlatti’s z ‘Cain overo il primo omicidi’ and interpretation of a programme of Roman polyphonies from the late 17th century (together with RIAS Kammerchor).
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DOMINIQUE VISSE
DOMINIQUE
VISSE
DOMINIQUE
VISSE
An artist of unique personality and great charisma; conductor and singer (countertenor), as well as expert in early music, particularly of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, Dominique Visse enrolled himself in the Maîtrise Notre-Dame de Paris at the age of eleven. Simultaneously, he started learning to play the organ and flute, completing his education at the Versailles Conservatory. In 1978 he founded the Ensemble Clément Janequin, a group with which he recorded a series of albums devoted to the French polyphonic chansons of the Renaissance period published by the Harmonia Mundi label. He is an acclaimed author of a number of reference recordings. He has collaborated with the leading personalities of early music circles and performed with the most exquisite groups playing on period instruments. He has become one of the most sought-after artists and performers of Baroque opera all over the world. Visse is also a promoter of eclecticism in the practice of historically informed performance, rejecting the conventional perception of the performance of historical repertoire based on studies of the music and musical culture of bygone centuries.
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 ENSEMBLE CLÉMENT JANEQUIN
ENSEMBLE CLÉMENT JANEQUIN
ENSEMBLE CLÉMENT JANEQUIN
The repertoire of this French early music ensemble founded by Dominique Visse in 1978 is drawn from the Renaissance and the early Baroque period. The group particularly specialises in performing secular and sacred vocal music ranging from Josquin to Monteverdi. Their unique interpretations of the 16th-century ‘Parisian’ chansons brought about a rediscovery of one of the most important domains of French music. Over the years, the ensemble - held in high regard by reviewers and admired by audiences – has become one of the leading performers of early music. Their creative output can be particularly described as an eclectic style of interpretion of the vocal music of bygone centuries. The group’s phonographic output is impressive, too. Their records of the series devoted to the French polyphonic chanson of the Renaissance period have been acclaimed as reference recordings. The albums by the Ensemble Clément Janequin have almost exclusively been published by the Harmonia Mundi label. For many years, the ensemble has been invited to the most prestigious early music festivals and most important music centres all over the world.
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TOMASZ POKRZYWIŃSKI
TOMASZ
POKRZYWIŃSKI
TOMASZ
POKRZYWIŃSKI
Cellist who began to learn that instrument at the age of seven, and who in the course of time became not only a performer, but also sound director, arranger, and promoter. He was encouraged to reach for the repertoire of early music by the eminent Dutch cellist Jaap ter Linden. Pokrzywiński studied period performance thoroughly during master classes and studies at the London Guildhall School of Music and Drama under the supervision of Alison McGillivray. He collaborates with the leading early music ensembles, including Arte dei Suonatori, Holland Baroque, Academy of Ancient Music, or La Nuova Musica. Both as a concertmaster and a soloist, he has performed in the concert halls of Europe, North America, and Asia. He has also recorded for labels such as Harmonia Mundi, Alpha Records, Channel Classics, and BIS. Pokrzywiński is an active promoter of musical life, who is also involved in educational and managerial activities.
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MAŁGORZATA FIEBIG
MAŁGORZATA
FIEBIG
MAŁGORZATA
FIEBIG
Organist and carillonist, she graduated from the Academy of Music in Gdańsk, where she had studied at the Faulty of Instrumental Music and Faculty of Choral Conducting. She also received her master’s degree in the class of Frans Haagen at the Nederlandse Beiaardschool at Amersfoort. Fiebig is the winner of numerous prizes in carillon competitions in Holland, Belgium, and Germany. She has given concerts in many European countries, as well as in Curaçao and the United States. In 1999 she assumed the post of municipal carillonist in Gdańsk, and in 2011 she became the first foreign – and female – carillonist in Utrecht. Her repertoire comprises carillon adaptations of not only early, but also contemporary, and even pop, music. Since 2012 she has co-organised the Early Music Carillon Festival that is held within the framework of Festival Oude Muziek in Utrecht.
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ROBERT BACHARA
ROBERT
BACHARA
ROBERT
BACHARA
Born in 1985, Robert Bachara started to play the violin at the age of eight. He studied at the Academy of Music in Wrocław and took part in master classes with Ida Haendel, Grigorij Żyslin and Jadwiga Kaliszewskiej. He also studied the historical principles of violin playing with Sirkka-Liisa Kaakinen-Pilch in Krakow. His fields of interest include early music and solo violin music. In his recitals, Robert wishes to present the violin as a self-sufficient instrument that can meet the requirements of early and contemporary music. Performing early music, Robert Bachara takes on a number of non-standard challenges. He chooses a particularly demanding repertoire, i.e. performs the entire Biber’s ‘Rosary Sonatas’ in a single concert and holds his violin in a historical position, i.e. at his chest and not his collar-bone.
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LILIANNA STAWARZ
LILIANNA
STAWARZ
LILIANNA
STAWARZ
Harpsichordist and teacher, Professor at the Chopin University of Music. Graduate of the Warsaw Academy of Music and Conservatoire à rayonnement régional de Rueil-Malmaison. Laureate of harpsichord competitions in Poland and abroad. For 20 years, she was a member of the early music ensemble Il Tempo specialised in instrumental as well as instrumental and vocal music, from Early Baroque to Classicism, with which she appeared at numerous concerts and prestigious early music festivals, i.a. in Bruges, Brussels, Utrecht, Moscow, New York, New Brunswick, Rome and Berlin. Since 1991, she has worked with the Warsaw Chamber Opera as a harpsichordist and chamber musician as well as conductor. She has conducted works by Bach, Purcell and Handel, as well as providing basso continuo. Her interest in early music in Poland manifests itself in her recordings and concerts of the repertoire of Marcin Mielczewski, Damian Stachowicz, Marcin Żebrowski, Antoni Milwid. In 2015–2017, she was the artistic director of Baroque Opera at the Warsaw Chamber Opera. She is also a cofounder of the Baroque Opera Festival ‘Dramma Per Musica’.
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KRZYSZTOF FIRLUS
KRZYSZTOF
FIRLUS
KRZYSZTOF
FIRLUS
A player of double bass and the viola da Gamba. Graduate of Akademia Muzyczna of Katowice, Poland, and of Universität Mozarteum in Salzburg. A laureate of the ‘Młoda Polska’ scholarship from the Polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage and of Polish and international bass competitions. He is active on both the Polish and the international concert scene as a soloist and as a member of chamber groups and orchestras. Involved with the Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra in Katowice, and a member of numerous chamber and early music ensembles, including: {oh!} Orkiestra Historyczna, Extempore, Gambasada, Ensemble Reversio and Ensemble Chimérique, of which he is the founder. His past involvements included Kwartet Śląski, Capella Cracoviensis and the AUKSO Orchestra. Krzysztof Firlus teaches a viola da Gamba class at the Akademia Muzyczna in Katowice and a bass class at Akademia Muzyczna in Krakow, Poland.
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ANNA FIRLUS
ANNA
FIRLUS
ANNA
FIRLUS
A harpsichordist who graduated from the Karol Szymanowski Academy of Music in Katowice, having completed the organ and harpsichord class. She then perfected her skills during numerous courses on interpreting organ, harpsichord, and chamber music under the tutelage of eminent personalities of the world of instrumental music. Firlus collaborates with many early music ensembles. She is a member of the {oh!} Orkiestra Historyczna, and co-founder of the Extempore ensemble which specialises in performing 17th- and 18th-century music. As both soloist and chamber music performer, she gives concerts in Poland and abroad. She also realises her talent in the domain of phonography as an exquisite performer of basso continuo. Album ‘Gamba Sonatas’ – recorded with her husband Krzysztof Firlus – was nominated for the ‘Fryderyk Award’ in 2019 in the category of Early Music Album of the Year. In addition, the artist is employed as an accompanist in the class on historical performance practice at the Karol Szymanowski Academy of Music in Katowice.
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PROGRAMME
11.12godz. 17:30
JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH: SUITES PER VIOLONCELLO SOLO SENZA BASSO BWV 1010–1012
TOMASZ POKRZYWIŃSKI
Johann Sebastian Bach
Suites per violoncello solo senza basso BWV 1010–1012

Suita IV Es-dur BWV 1010
Suita V c-moll BWV 1011
Suita VI D-dur BWV 1012

Tomasz Pokrzywiński – cello
Main Town Hall, ul. Długa 46
11.12godz. 20:00
ANTONIO VIVALDI: LA STRAVAGANZA (LONDON, 1728)
FABIO BIONDI / EUROPA GALANTE
Antonio Vivaldi
La Stravaganza (London, 1728)

Concerto B-dur RV 383a
Concerto e-moll RV 279
Concerto a-moll RV 357
Concerto F-dur RV 284
Concerto D-dur RV 204
Concerto F-dur RV 291

Europa Galante
Fabio Biondi – artistic direction, violin
St. John's Centre, ul. Świętojańska 50
12.12godz. 17:30
JOHANN JOSEPH VILSMAYR: ARTIFICIOSUS CONCENTUS PRO CAMERA
ROBERT BACHARA
Johann Joseph Vilsmayr
Artificiosus Concentus pro Camera

Partita I A-dur
Partita II B-dur
Partita III c-moll

Robert Bachara – violin
Main Town Hall, ul. Długa 46
12.12godz. 20:00
IL SANTISSIMO NATALE
GIOVANNI ANTONINI / IL GIARDINO ARMONICO
Antonio Vivaldi
Concerto F-dur RV 433 ‘La Tempesta di mare’
Concerto c-moll RV 441
Concerto C-dur RV 444
Cum dederit (z Nisi Dominus RV 608)

Arcangelo Corelli
Concerto grosso g-moll ‘Fatto per la notte di Natale’

Giuseppe Torelli
Concerto g-moll ‘Per il Santissimo Natale’

Francesco Manfredini
Concerto grosso C-dur ‘Con una Pastorale per il Santissimo Natale’

Giovanni Legrenzi
Sonata a-moll ‘La Cetra’

Il Giardino Armonico
Giovanni Antonini – artistic direction, flute
Artus Court, ul. Długi Targ 43-44
13.12godz. 17:30
CARL FRIEDRICH ABEL: SONATEN FÜR VIOLA DA GAMBA UND CEMBALO
KRZYSZTOF FIRLUS / ANNA FIRLUS
Carl Friedrich Abel
Sonaten für Viola da Gamba und Cembalo

Sonata D-dur A 2:75
Sonata g-moll A 2:56a
Sonata G-dur A 2:68a
Sonata a-moll A 2:57a
Sonata D-dur A 2:50

Krzysztof Firlus – viola da gamba
Anna Firlus – harpsichord
Old Market Town Hall, ul. Korzenna 33/35
13.12godz. 20:00
GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI DA PALESTRINA: HODIE CHRISTUS NATUS EST
DOMINIQUE VISSE / ENSEMBLE CLÉMENT JANEQUIN
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Hodie Christus natus est
Missa Hodie Christus natus est
 
Claudin de Sermisy
Dison Nau à pleine teste (sur Il est jour, dit l'alouette)
Au bois de deuil (surAu joly boys)
 
Eustache Du Caurroy
Fantaisie XXXI (sur Une jeune fillette)
Une jeune pucelle (sur Une jeune fillette)
Fantaisie XXX (sur Une jeune fillette)
 
Loyset Piéton
O beata infantia
 
Christian Hollander
Bien fort a fait Marie à un seul port (sur Plaisir n'ay plus)
 
Claude Goudimel
Esprit divins, chantons dans la nuit sainte (sur Estans assis aux rives aquatiques)
 
Anonim
Plaisir n'ay plus que vivre en desconfort (sur Plaisir n'ay plus)
 
Ensemble Clément Janequin
Dominique Visse – artistic direction, voice
Artus Court, ul. Długi Targ 43-44
14.12godz. 17:30
FRANÇOIS COUPERIN: PIÈCES DE VIOLES (1728)
MAŁGORZATA FIEBIG
François Couperin
Pièces de violes (1728)
 
Première Suite e-moll
Deuxième Suite A-dur
 
Jacob van Eyck
Der Fluyten Lust-hof
 
Puer nobis nascitur
O Heyligh zalig Bethlehem
Een Kindeke is ons gebooren
 
Małgorzata Fiebig – carillon
St. Catherine's Church, ul. Profesorska 3
14.12godz. 20:00
JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH: VARIATIONS ON VARIATIONS
RINALDO ALESSANDRINI / CONCERTO ITALIANO
Johann Sebastian Bach

Goldberg-Variationen BWV 988
Passacaglia c-moll BWV 582
Aria variata alla maniera italiana a-moll BWV 989
Canzona d-moll BWV 588

Concerto Italiano
Rinaldo Alessandrini
 - artistic direction, harpsichord
Artus Court, ul. Długi Targ 43-44
15.12godz. 17:30
JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH: FRANZÖSISCHEN SUITEN BWV 812–817
LILIANNA STAWARZ
Johann Sebastian Bach
Französischen Suiten BWV 812–817

Suita I d-moll BWV 812
Suita II c-moll BWV 813
Suita III h-moll BWV 814
Suita IV Es-dur BWV 815
Suita V G-dur BWV 816
Suita VI E-dur BWV 817

Lilianna Stawarz – harpsichord
Old Market Town Hall, ul. Korzenna 33/35
15.12godz. 20:00
MICHAEL PRAETORIUS: CHRISTMETTE
PAUL McCREESH / GABRIELI CONSORT & PLAYERS
Michael Praetorius
Christmette

Gabrieli Consort & Players
Paul McCreesh – conductor
St. John's Centre, ul. Świętojańska 50
VENUES
St. John’s Centre
St. John’s Centre
The first written mention of a small chapel dedicated to St. John comes from 1358. The church’s style is typical for late-Gothic architecture of the 14th and 15th centuries, with its heavy, buttressed structure, triple nave interior and flat-ended presbytery. The church took on its current form in the second half of the 15th century. In 1543, the church tower was destroyed by fire to be rebuilt 24 years later. In March 1945, the church burned down but its overall structure survived. After the war, the gutted building was roofed and its valuable vaults secured, but the church was designated a lapidarium. The Gdansk Diocese has been using it for services on Sundays and holidays since the 1990s. In 1995, the church was transferred to the management of the Baltic Sea Culture Centre (BSCC), which is reconstructing it with a view to converting it into a professional centre of culture.
Artus Court
Artus Court
In its day, Artus Court was home to the Brotherhood of St. George, providing a meeting place for nobles, merchants and courts. Currently, Artus Court is a branch of the Gdansk History Museum and is regarded as one of the city’s main tourist attractions. The history of Artus Court goes back to the middle of the 14th century - the building was erected in 1348–1350 and named after King Arthur, reflecting aspirations to the ideals of knightly virtue perfectly embodied by the legendary Celtic leader, and of equality and partnership symbolised by the Round Table at which Arthur sat with his knights. The building’s name, curia regis Artus (Royal Artus Court), was first mentioned in 1357. Artus Court is part of a route known as the Royal Way in the historic Main Town. Its interior is organised as one vast Gothic-style hall. In 1530, this seat of various brotherhoods, a meeting point and festival venue, took on another important role as a chamber for open court hearings. The Grand Hall’s acoustic properties were recognised in the late 17th century and regular concerts were held.
St. Catharine’s Church
St. Catharine’s Church
The Old Town’s oldest parish church. Founded by the Gdańsk Pomeranian Dukes it was dedicated to St. Catharine in 1236. The church is a hall-type edifice with pitched roof, a broad presbytery whose current three-nave structure was formed during a 15th century expansion, and a dominant tower. For nearly 400 years, it belonged to Protestants and was only transferred to the care of the Carmelite Order after the Second World War. In 2011, the world’s first pulsar clock was installed on the tower to celebrate the 400th birthday of Johann Hevelius, one of the city’s all-time greatest citizens. This is also where one finds the astronomer’s tombstone of 1659 and a piece of his coffin plaque with monogram J.H. and date of death 28 January 1687. In the 18th century, the church received its first carillon, subsequently modified and extended several times. The instrument survived a fire in 1905 and Nazi confiscation in 1942. Currently, the carillon consists of 50 bells spanning together four octaves making it Central Europe’s largest concert carillon.
Main Town Hall
Main Town Hall
The Great Wety Hall (the White Hall) is located in the eastern wing of the first and most elegant storey of the building. When the Polish kings visited Gdansk, the hall served as a throne room and a place where the royal burgrave received oaths and issued court judgments. The Great Wety Hall hosted commemorations of Polish citizenship and, until the middle of the 16th century, was the venue of City Council meetings. Starting from 1526, the Hall was used for sittings of the common folk chamber (the Third Ordynek) and the Wety Court. Between 1817 and 1921, the Great Wety Hall was mostly referred to as the City Council Hall (Stadtverordnetensaal) as it hosted the meetings of City Representatives. In 1840-1841, its interiors were rebuilt in a neo-gothic style based on the summer refectory from the Grand Master’s Palace in Malbork Castle. In 1909, a 16th century Renaissance portal, that was originally located in the merchant’s house at Chlebnicka 11, was placed over the entry to the Main Hallway. In 1945, the destroyed hall was reconstructed following the design Stanisław Bobiński and brought back to its pre-1941 condition.
Old Market Town Hall
Old Market Town Hall
Created by Anthonis van Obberghen, the Old Market Town Hall was erected in late 16th century in the Dutch Mannerist style. Built for the Old Town authorities, the building was a centre of the political, economic, scientific and social life of this part of Gdansk for many centuries. It was there that city debates were held, that the Grand Hall hosted official ceremonies, while balls and parties were organised there in the evenings. A famous Gdansk-based scholar and astronomer Johannes Hevelius resided in the Old Market Town Hall as an assessor and the first councillor, storing his home-made beer in the town hall cellars. With its landmark silhouette, the town hall is a major urban highlight of the Old Town. Regardless of many reconstructions, the town hall envelope has remained unchanged until now. Multiple modifications of its interior have enriched the building with exceptional objects. The first floor features an elegant hallway and an imposing Grand Hall, now known as the Bourgeoisie Hall, with an original wooden ceiling.
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